Raul Naupari
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Serverless Framework: Variables

Serverless Framework: Variables

Raul Naupari's photo
Raul Naupari
·Oct 17, 2022·

3 min read

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Table of contents

  • Syntax
  • Custom Properties
  • Overwriting Variables
  • Sources
  • Multiple Configuration Files
  • Nesting Variable References

In our last post, we introduced Serverless Framework as a great tool to deploy our AWS Lambda functions. Today we will review Serverless Variables as a way to dynamically replace values in the serverless.yml file.

Syntax

Through the ${} syntax we can reference several values from different sources.

SomeProperty: ${someVariable}

Custom Properties

We can define new properties under the custom section:

service: new-service
provider:
  name: aws
custom:
  properyA: 1
  properyB: 'value'
functions:
  hello:
    handler: handler.hello

Overwriting Variables

We can reference multiple variables as a fallback strategy in case one of the variables is missing:

 propertyA: ${someVariable, otherVariable}
 propertyB: ${someVariable, 'value'}
 propertyC: ${someVariable, false}
 propertyD: ${someVariable, 1024}

Sources

Properties

We can reference any property in the serverless.yml file, using the ${self:someProperty} syntax:

service: new-service
provider:
  name: aws
custom:
  prefix: 'abc'
functions:
  hello:
    name: ${self:custom.prefix}-hello
    handler: handler.hello

Environment Variables

To reference environment variables, use the ${env:someVariable} syntax:

service: new-service
provider:
  name: aws
functions:
  hello:
    name: ${env:PREFIX}-hello
    handler: handler.hello

Parameters

To reference parameters, use the ${param:someParameter} syntax:

service: new-service
provider:
  name: aws
functions:
  hello:
    name: ${param:prefix}-hello
    handler: handler.hello

Parameters can be passed directly via CLI --param flag:

serverless deploy --param="prefix=abc" --param="otherParameter=otherValue"

Files

To reference properties in other files, use the ${file(./someFile.xyz):someProperty} syntax.

Yaml

# file.yml file
prefix: 'abc'
service: new-service
provider:
  name: aws
functions:
  hello:
    name: ${file(./file.yml):prefix}-hello
    handler: handler.hello

Json

# file.json file
{
  prefix: 'abc'
}
service: new-service
provider:
  name: aws
functions:
  hello:
    name: ${file(./file.yml):prefix}-hello
    handler: handler.hello

Javascript

// file.js file
module.exports.prefix= 'abc';
service: new-service
provider:
  name: aws
functions:
  hello:
    name: ${file(./file.js):prefix}-hello
    handler: handler.hello

CLI Options

To reference CLI options, use the ${opt:someOption} syntax. Common options are:

  • ${opt:stage}: The stage in your service you want to deploy.
  • ${opt:stage}: The region in your service you want to deploy.

Options can be passed directly via CLI --stage and --region flags:

serverless deploy --stage production --region eu-central-1

Serverless Variables

Serverless variables are used internally by the Framework itself. The following variables are available:

  • ${sls:instanceId}: A random id generated when the CLI runs.
  • ${sls:stage}: The stage used by the CLI.

AWS Resources

  • CloudFormation Outputs: Use the ${cf:someStackName.someOutputKey} syntax.
  • S3 Objects: Use the ${s3:someBucketName/someKey} syntax.
  • SSM Parameter Store: Use the ${ssm:/path/to/param} syntax.
  • AWS Secrets Manager: Use the ${ssm:/aws/reference/secretsmanager/secret_ID_in_Secrets_Manager} syntax.
  • AWS Variables: ${aws:accountId} and ${aws:region}.

Multiple Configuration Files

We can add entire Resources sections from multiple files:

resources:
  - ${file(resources/first-cf-resources.yml)}
  - ${file(resources/second-cf-resources.yml)}

Each of your CloudFormation files has to start with a Resources entity:

Resources:
  Type: 'AWS::S3::Bucket'
  Properties:
    BucketName: some-bucket-name

Nesting Variable References

We can nest variable references within each other. So you can reference certain variables based on another variable:

service: new-service
provider:
  name: aws
functions:
  hello:
    name: ${param:${env:PARAM_NAME}}-hello
    handler: handler.hello

Thanks, and happy coding.

 
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